Drug dependence is specific because of the diversity of substances and their impact range. As with other addictions, drug dependence has a strong, acquired need for substance use. Research conducted by the National Bureau for Drug Prevention (KBPD) shows that drug use is less prevalent than alcohol consumption, affecting 4.7% of the Polish population aged 15-64. Compared to the overall population, youth and young adults aged 15-34 years are among the highest levels of drug use.
According to the EZOP study, the first epidemiological study of mental disorders in Poland, in 2011 the population of drug addicts was estimated at 37.2 to 102 thousand (0.3% of the population).
According to the "State of Health of the Polish Population 2014" survey, cannabis derivatives are among the most common substances in Poland.
Drugs can be divided according to their impact:
- Stimulants are substances that stimulate the central nervous system. We include them:
- Amphetamines and their derivatives: methamphetamine, methylphenidate
- Ephedrine and its steroisomers: ephedrine and pseudo-ephedrine
- N-methylxanthins: caffeine, theophylline, theobromine
- Depressants are substances that have a slowing effect on the central nervous system:
- Benzodiazepines, e.g. diazepam, flunitrazepam
- Sleeping depressants: barbiturates, chloroform, chloral hydrate
- Opioids, e.g. opium, codeine, tramadol, morphine, heroin, methadone
- Psychedelics - substances that cause disorders in the central nervous system:
- deliriants, e.g. scopolamine, atropine
- other psychedelics e.g. Salvinorin A
- stimulative psychedelics, e.g. MDMA, MDA, mescaline, DOM, LSD-25, AMT, DMT
- dissociants, e.g. nitrous oxide, ketamine
Cannabis and its derivatives, e.g. THC, are distinguished as a separate group because they exhibit stimulatory and depressive effects and also have psychedelic characteristics.
The 2015 study, conducted by the KNB and the CBOS Foundation, shows that the most commonly used drug in Poland was cannabis (10% of the population aged 15-34), followed by amphetamine (0.4%), followed by cocaine (0.4% among young adults).
In 2015, 255 people died of drugs, 204 deaths were registered in 2015, the highest percentage of which were men (CSO data).